Main ingredients of every beer are water, malt, yeast and hops. The brewing process starts with grains, usually barley, which has to be dry or roasted, and mold free.


Grains need to be crushed so the starch from grains can be converted into fermentable sugars. If it is not crushed enough less starch will be fermenting, if the crush is too fine the brew will become gummy and unusable.



Crushed grains are mixed with hot water in the large mash tun. The heat from the water activates the enzymes from grains wich begin to convert the starch into sugar. Brewers can control sweetness of beer by controlling the temperature. Lower temperature will produce less sugar, higher temperature will result in sweeter beer.


From the mashing tun, mash is transferred to lautering vessel where all the liquids are drained with false bottom of the vessel. Those liquids are called wort. More water is sprayed through the grains to wash out as much of the extract as possible. This is known as sparging. Sparging must be short as possible, as eventually the bitter tannins from the grain will also be added to wort.


After the wort has been separated from the grains, it is transferred to a huge kettle to boil for one to two hours, where beer is sterilized, and hops are added. If hops are boiled for long time, one hour or more, they will produce more bitterness. If hops are boiled for short period of time, 10-15 minutes or at lower temperature, hops will release aroma and flavour to the beer. When the boiling is finished beer is transferred to a whirlpool to collect boiled hops. Then it is immediately cooled. Cooling the beer quickly is important, since the beer will immediately begin to oxidize and produce off-flavours.


The fun starts here! After cooling beer is transferred to big stainless steel or oak vat and yeast is added. Yeast starts to eat the sugar and in that process alcohol and carbon dioxide is released as well as a variety of flavour. Storing depends on the type of yeast. Ale is stored for a couple of weeks at room temperature and a lager is stored for many weeks or months at cold temperatures. When fermentation is over beer is filtered to remove yeast.


After allowing it to age for some time, the final step in the brewing process is packaging the beer. Beer is packed into bottles, cans or kegs and CO2 is added.



In the process of production, fermentation of yeast determines type of beer. There are two ways of fermentation – top and bottom. Top produces Lager beer, and bottom produces Ale beer.



Ales are brewed using top fermenting yeast at warmer temperature.  Yeast sits at the top of the fermentation tank and it ferments quickly.  Ales are characterized by a full bodied and fruity flavour, also darker in colour. Many ales, such as India pale ales, contain more hops which results in a slightly bitter taste to help balance the sweetness.

Types of beer in the ale category include pale ales, wheat beers, bitters, porters, stouts, barley wines, brown ales and triples.



Lager is brewed using bottom-fermenting yeast at a lower temperature and it ferments slowly, on the bottom of the fermentation tank, usually three weeks or more, and is characterized by a mild, crisp, and refreshing taste than ale and has less hop flavouring.

Types of beer in the lager category include pilsners, Vienna lagers, bocks and marzens.



Style is determent by its colour, aroma and taste. Colour comes mainly from malt. Variety goes from pale ale to dark black. Heavily roasted malt produces dark colour and gives beer a creamy taste. Depending on type of malt, taste could be slightly chocolate or coffee. We can also influence the colour by adding flavour ingredients like fruits, spices or herbs.



Amber beers are medium bodied with toasted malt aromas with hints of caramel sweetness. Colour vary from light copper to light brown in hue. These beers could be either lager or ale.


Blonde has low to medium bitterness, very pale colour and tend to be clear, crisp, and dry, with aroma from hops and some sweetness from malt.


Stouts are thick and creamy, also dark brown or jet-black color thanks to characteristic of long-roasted malt and flavours enhanced with notes of cocoa, coffee, chocolate or toffee.


Brown ale are medium bodied with hint of caramel and chocolate flavours and may have a slight citrus or malty or nutty accent, depending on the area of brewing.


A very mild, sweetish, golden style of ale.


Dark ale is a dark brown colour, with a delicate fruity smell and robust, malty character.


First developed in the UK, Golden ales are straw coloured with a slight hint of citrus and vanilla. The beer can sometimes contain spicier flavours.


A full-bodied beer with slightly hints of caramel and a creamy texture and copper colour.

India Pale Ale

IPA has a characteristic of very hopped, lightly malted body, aromatic and extra bitterness with hint of citrus and fruits. Usually they have higher percentage of alcohol. The name comes from period when England occupied India. They were shipping beer overseas but due to long journey beer kept spilling.  So, they come up with solution, to add more hops (which is natural preservative) and alcohol. It worked, and everyone were happy.


Extremely light in colour and mild in flavour. Light beer has less calories and lower alcohol content.


Great pilsners are technically difficult to make and relatively expensive to produce. They are delicate and for great taste must be fresh. They are medium- to medium-full bodied with a dry, crisp, and somewhat bitter flavour and golden colour. Made with neutral and hard water and more hops, Pilsner surly stands out from other lagers.


Red Ales use specialty roasted malts that create a light red to a dark brown colour with red hues and gives it a sweeter, butterscotch or caramelized flavour, and tends to leave a dry finish. Its alcohol content is medium.

An Irish ale are lightly hopped with toasted malt flavour and dry finish.  It may also be slightly sweet. There are also Belgian Reds (more sour notes) and American Red Ales (similar to amber ales).


This is a broad grouping that can describe any beer over 7% ABV.

Wheat Beer 

Lightly coloured, full flavoured and it must be made from at least 50% wheat malt and top-fermenting yeast. Wheat proteins contribute to a hazy, or cloudy appearance and are commonly unfiltered, leaving yeast sediment in the bottle.


Bock beer is stronger than typical lager, dark amber to brown colour with malty flavour and hop bitterness. Its malty, full-bodied, creamy, full-mouthed taste can feel like a meal, which brings the old legend of Bavarian monks to truth as they subsisted on bock during long fasting.


Porter is dark and creamy with Low to medium malt sweetness and hint of caramel or chocolate. It is very similar to stout, but porter has no roasted barley and strong burnt malt character because it is made from, or mostly from, unroasted barley.


Tripel (Trappist) is a Belgian ale, complexed but very good balanced between malt sweetness and hop bitterness. Tripel has deep yellow or golden colour and a lightly sweet flavour with a crisp, dry and spicy finish with citrus notes. Its alcohol content is high.